Even when interest rates are at historic lows, interest costs can be
significant for businesses and owner-managers.
The significant rise in the cost of equipment, vehicles, real estate, and
inventory has prompted many businesses to increase business debt. Low
interest rates, combined with the ability to obtain larger loans with
extended payment terms, have allowed businesses to operate in a “business
as usual” mode with less consideration for the actual cost of borrowing.
To give some idea of the effect of even low interest rates on an
owner-managed business, the following key elements of most businesses have
been put forward as an example of the effect of interest costs on a
business. The effect of domestic borrowing has been added to show the full
impact of current interest rates on the owner-manager. Since lending rates
vary widely depending on a variety of factors such as risk, item to be
funded and the term, and are usually negotiated,
the interest rates used below have been chosen at random from Internet
sources; calculations are approximate and for illustrative purposes
- All loans have been made effective June 1, 2017.
- Commercial mortgage: $600,000 over 25 years at 3%
- Two work vehicles: $120,000 financed over five years at 6%
- Equipment loan: $200,000 financed over five years at 5%
- Operating line of credit: $50,000 at 3% a year
- Credit card debt: $10,000 at 15% a year on the outstanding balance
- Commercial mortgage amount: $600,000
- Interest for first year: $17,776
- Interest paid over first five years: $83,748
- Interest paid over the 25 years (300 months) of payment: $253,580
- Total commercial mortgage cost: $853,580
A sobering reality is that, when interest costs are factored in, the
$600,000 building ends up costing $853,580. Assuming the interest is a
deductible business expense, and assuming a 17% corporate tax rate, total
interest would be reduced by $43,109, thus reducing the overall cost of
purchasing to $810,471.
- Total purchase price of two vehicles: $120,000
- Interest for first year: $6,623
- Interest for five years: $19,196
- Total vehicle cost: $139,196
- Loan amount: $200,000
- Interest for first year: $9,179
- Interest for five years: $26,455
- Total loan cost: $226,455
Line of Credit
- Annual outstanding balance: $50,000
- Interest for one year: $1,500
- Interest for five years: $7,500
- Average annual outstanding balance: $10,000
- Interest for one year: $1,500
- Interest for five years: $7,500
Over five years, the total interest cost to your business is $144,399. Even
at a 17% corporate tax rate and a corresponding $24,548 reduction over five
years, the cost of borrowing is still $119,851.
The hard truth is that interest costs even in times of low interest rates
have a very negative impact on the bottom line.
Canadians are extending repayment periods.
On the Home Front
At the end of Q1 of 2017, the ratio of Canadian household debt to
disposable income was 1.67:1 or $1.67 of debt for every $1 of disposable
income. Canadians borrowed $27.5 million in the first quarter, of which
mortgages accounted for $20.9 billion. Not only are Canadians borrowing a
lot of money, they are extending the periods of repayment for some
expensive items. Recent statistics indicate that in excess of 40% of all
new vehicles purchased are financed from 61 to 72 months; loans extending
from 73 to 84 months now make up almost 20% of new vehicle loans.
Home equity lines of credit (HELOCs) have increased as well. There are
currently about three million HELOC accounts in Canada; the average
outstanding balance in each account is estimated at $70,000.
For a moment, consider that the owner-manager, in addition to the business
debt that has to be serviced, has the following personal debt with the same
interest rates as the business.
- Mortgage: $400,000 amortized over 25 years at 3%
- Interest for first year: $11,851
- Interest paid over five years: $55,833
- Interest paid over 25 years (300 months): $169,054
- Total mortgage cost over 25 years: $569,054
- Two vehicles: $80,000 financed over five years at 2.7%
- Interest for first year: $1,974
- Interest for five years: $5,611
- Total vehicle cost: $85,611
- Average annual outstanding balance: $70,000 for five years at 3.2%
- Interest for first year: $2,240
- Interest for five years: $11,200
- Total loan cost: $81,200
Total interest cost to service personal debt for five years is $72,644.
Given that the interest costs are in after-tax dollars and assuming the
individual is in a 30% tax bracket, the taxpayer has effectively paid an
additional $20,186 as well as the opportunity costs of not being able to
purchase investments or other consumer goods.
Impact on Business
Interest costs affect owner-managers both at business and home. Business
interest costs dictate the need to increase cash flow to service the debt
and therefore drive the need to increase sales volumes or prices to
maintain a sustainable profit.
Maintaining a lifestyle supported by debt increases the need to earn more
money to service that debt. For the owner-manager, that means procuring a
higher income from the business. This, in turn, creates additional pressure
on the business to increase cash flow, sales volumes, or prices to satisfy
the owner’s personal needs. An added consternation is personal income tax.
Not only will the additional income to the owner-manager create a higher
personal income tax, but it may result in increased business expenses for
other source deductions.
Risks of Low Interest Costs
The cost of borrowing, whether for business or for personal needs, has a
significant impact on the owner-manager as well as on business operations.
The service costs of debt are a major drag on cash flow, profits, and the
future financial health of the business, even in periods of historically
low rates such as we are living in right now. But merely making the monthly
payments is not enough; the loan must eventually be repaid. With interest
rates so low and the cost of borrowing so high, there is a serious risk
that, when the bank rate starts to move up again, as it inevitably will,
many owner-managers will be caught offside and unable to make even the
Don’t let that owner-manager be you.
Contact Argento CPA today!
Source: BUSINESS MATTERS
Disclaimer: BUSINESS MATTERS deals with a number of complex issues in a concise manner; it is recommended that accounting, legal or other appropriate professional advice should be sought before acting upon any of the information contained therein.